William F. Koch, Ph. D., M. D.

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THE BIRTH OF A SCIENCE, BY DRS. WAHL, REHWINKEL AND REILLY - 1949

Chilliwack Experiments

BY W. BRUCE RICHARDSON

An Essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture in the Department of Animal Husbandry

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, APRIL 1947

INTRODUCTION

It has been my pleasure and good fortune to have been afforded an opportunity to observe and study the use of the Koch “Glyoxylide” Treatment as used for the correction of various diseases of animals in the Province of British Columbia since October 1944. At that time the late Minister of Agriculture, the Honorable Dr. K. C. MacDonald, appointed a Committee, of which I was a member, to study and appraise the product under actual field usage in the treatment of mastitis and sterility. After one year of study the Committee approved by a unanimous decision “that the product had established curative merit” and recommended its further use by the veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases.

During the intervening years, the Koch “Glyoxylide” Treatment has been extensively used by veterinarians in British Columbia at the request of many owners or managers of large dairy herds in the Province. At the same time opposition to the use of the Treatment both in Canada and the United States, together with legal action taken by the United States Federal Court against the originator and manufacturer of the product, has served only to stimulate interest and enquiry regarding the use of the Treatment in British Columbia from people all over North America. As a consequence students in Animal Husbandry at the University of British Columbia have been stimulated to undertake studies pertaining to the use of the Koch “Glyoxylide” Treatment in animal disease work. This essay is the first such study made by a senior student and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture.

Since this essay was completed it is of interest to note that the Chemistry of Dr. Koch’s “Glyoxylide” and other compounds as used by him have been established. Noted chemistry experts declared Dr. Koch’s Chemistry “pure nonsense” and structurally “incomprehensible” but recently, positive proof of the chemistry has been determined by chemists of the Dow Chemical Company of Midland, Michigan. With regard to their investigation of the Koch Chemistry, Dr. James Sheridan of that organization states, “Needless to say the Dow chemists leaned over backwards in their proofs in order that we might protect the good name of Dow from such a vigorous assault”—referring to the assaults that have been made upon the name of Dr. Koch.” Continuing Sheridan reports, “The complete evidence of the Dow chemists is now available to anyone interested. As a general conclusion I can say that in every single case where an experiment was possible the results were consistent with the views expounded by Dr. W. F. Koch. We have not as yet secured any results inconsistent with those views.”

The same statement may be applied with regard to the use of the “Glyoxylide” Treatment as used for animal diseases in British Columbia. We have not as yet secured any results inconsistent with the views and claims made for the product by Dr. W. F. Koch of Detroit, Michigan, and Dr. D. H. Arnott of London, Ontario. Dr. Arnott has been chiefly responsible for the product being tried and used successfully in the treatment of mastitis and sterility of cattle. Studies with regard to its use in the treatment of other diseases are continuing in British Columbia.

S. N. WOOD, D.V.M., Professor of Animal Husbandry

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Acknowledgment

Introduction

Purpose of the Study

Immunity:

      (a) Acquired Immunity

      (b) Natural Immunity

      (c) Dr. Koch’s Theory of Natural Immunity

Preparation of the Therapeutic Reagents:

      (a) The original method

      (b) The synthetic method

Method of Treatment for Animals

Reported Use of the Koch Treatment:

      (a) In British Columbia—

            (1) Reported by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture

            (2) Reported by Dr. S. N. Wood, University of B. C

      (b) In Ontario—

            (1) Reported by Dr. Arnott and Dr. Campbell

Survey of Dairy Herds in the Chilliwack Area:

      (a) Method used

      (b) Case histories cited

      (c) Summary of cases cited

      (d) General trends relative to the Koch Treatment in the Chilliwack area

A Comparison of Reported Results and Data Collected by the Writer

Conclusions

Literature Cited

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The first objective of this study is to outline the principles of immunity and present the Theory of Natural Immunity outlined by Dr. Koch.

The second objective, perhaps the most interesting from the viewpoint of the animal husbandman, is to review the use of the Koch Treatment Therapy on livestock.

The material presented will include:

(1) The method of treatment;

(2) Recorded information resulting from the use of the Treatment;

(3) Supplementary information obtained from farmers in the Chilliwack area of the Fraser Valley.

IMMUNITY

Immunity has been defined by Bryan (1) as the ability of the individual to resist or overcome infection caused by living microorganisms. This state of resistance is indicated either by the failure of the individual to develop the disease upon exposure, or, in some cases, by the demonstration of specific immune bodies or bactericidal substances in the blood, which are considered effective against the invading organism.

Immunity may be natural or acquired. The individual acquires immunity during its lifetime following infection with a certain microorganism; in response to which antibodies are developed which remain in the blood stream for various periods of time. This type of immunity is opposed to natural immunity, for in this case the individual becomes immune only after he has had an attack of a disease, or has been rendered immune by the injection of bacteria or bactericidal products.

This acquired immunity may be of two types:

Active Immunity:

In this case, the antibodies are developed within the individual as a result of having the disease, or following a course of immunization with attenuated organisms, dead bacteria, bacterial toxins, bacterial filtrates, toxoids or attenuated or killed virus.

Passive Immunity:

This immunity is usually of short duration and differs from active immunity in that the antibodies, instead of being formed by the individual, have been produced in another animal whose blood serum is injected into the individual to be immunized.

The mechanisms of acquired immunity are well understood and are made use of extensively in prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of disease. For example, calf hood vaccination for protection against Bang’s disease is being widely used, and, from a diagnostic point of view, the agglutination test for the same disease is standard procedure.

Natural immunity to a specific disease is inherited, and the degree of immunity varies considerably in different individuals. Eichhorn (2) uses the following example: when a herd of swine has been exposed to hog cholera, a few animals commonly die within 48 to 72 hours after the symptoms develop; others—probably the majority—are sick for 4 to 10 days before dying; some recover after being slightly sick; some after being very sick; and a few may show no indications of illness. The last group would be considered naturally immune.

Most individuals of a species are immune or resistant to certain specific diseases. For example, horses and cattle may be exposed to hog cholera but they never contract this disease. Such natural resistance is known as species immunity.

There are other factors that operate in resistance to disease. The severity of exposure and the virulence of the germs or virus causing the disease may be a factor in breaking down the natural immunity. It would be unwise to dismiss the subject of disease resistance without indicating the role of nutrition. In a general sense, poor nutrition tends to weaken the natural barriers of the animal body to disease-producing invaders. How this is accomplished is a very complex question. Complete knowledge as to the interaction and interdependence of the proteins, the energy source, the essential minerals, and the vitamins, is lacking at present. Much of the experimental work has been done on laboratory animals, such as the guinea pig and rat, and because of the species difference in the need for the vitamin factors, results obtained in the laboratory are not necessarily applicable to the larger animals.

During recent years, much attention has been directed towards the vitamins. Ellis (3) suggests that the underlying cause for the increased susceptibility of Vitamin A deficient animals resides in the changes produced in the epithelial tissues (those of the skin and lining membranes) through the substitution of keratinized or horny tissue for normal tissue. If this is true, the change in epithelial tissues brought about by lack of Vitamin A, increases the susceptibility to invasion by disease-producing organisms, but there is not necessarily a decrease of immunity in the strictly medical sense.

The general picture regarding nutrition and disease resistance indicates that nutritive well-being is essential for the animal body to combat disease.

In contrast to acquired immunity, natural immunity is made little use of as a means of animal disease control. The mechanisms involved in natural immunity are poorly understood. It is within this field that Dr. Koch has made an endeavor to ascertain the nature and functions of these mechanisms. As a result of studies and research, he has formulated a Theory of Natural Immunity.

The possible applications and the limits to this Theory as yet have not been fully determined.

DR. KOCH’S THEORY OF NATURAL IMMUNITY

In an attempt to explain the underlying mechanisms involved in natural immunity, Koch (4) has not only studied conditions existing when disease is present, but also the characteristics of normal healthy tissues. He suggests that normal healthy animal tissues contain substances that prevent and abolish its basic pathology.

These substances, called metabolites, are described as being diffusible bodies of small molecular weight held in adsorption by the lecithin cephalin fractions of the tissue extracts, from which they can be removed by dialysis, and exist in exceedingly small quantities.

Resulting from the hypodermic administration of these metabolites to human patients suffering from malignancy, various infections and allergic states commonly met with, Koch (4) has arrived at the following conclusions:

(1) Natural immunity is a general property of the tissues, depending upon the presence of metabolites concerned in the oxidation process ordinarily belonging to the production of energy for function. The metabolites seem to serve as photo-chemic sensitizers or catalysts.

(2) The normal biological reactions, resulting from a sufficient supply of these tissue metabolites, constitute the resistance to disease and prevents malfunction in general.

(3) Deficiency in these materials eventuates in an interruption in the progress of oxidation and function. Consequently, susceptibility to infection with symptoms and structural changes of disease being produced.

(4) Deficiency in these substances may result from exhaustive muscular effort, the exhaustion from too severe exposure to cold, from lytic action of poisons upon tissue colloids that raises the surface tension and causes a washing out or leaking away of the important metabolites, and finally from the action of toxic molecules that inhibits or paralyzes the action of the metabolites.

In supporting the views of Koch, Arnott (5) points out that the most potent forces affording us protection from disease are natural within our bodies. The potency of these protective forces depends to a large degree upon the normal oxidation of food materials into living energy. Arnott believes that the last step in the transition of energy contained in the food consumed for nourishment into that of living energy, takes place through the catalytic action of certain carbon compounds (described as metabolites, by Koch) which are natural to the body; and that a chronic deficiency of oxidation results when the supply of these essential compounds becomes depleted. A defect in the continuous efficiency of this fundamental biochemical reaction constitutes the origin of the predisposition to disease or various types of pathological states.

The supposition is, therefore, that renewing the supply of these essential carbon compounds, by hypodermic injection, will re-establish a vigorous resistance to disease and a natural recovery process may be instituted through which good health may be restored.

PREPARATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC REAGENTS

The first method used in producing the metabolites employed the use of certain animal tissues as the starting point. Certain tissues were thought to provide the richest source, because of their greater survival against starvation as compared with other body tissues. But it is to be pointed out that this first method of producing the Reagents was expensive and very often unsuccessful.

To get around these difficulties, a synthetic procedure for producing the compounds in a suitable form was developed. Several methods were tried. The end product is described as being the internal anhydride of glyoxylic acid, and is given the structural formula O=C==C=O. The term “Glyoxylide” is used as a short form when referring to this compound.

METHOD OF TREATMENT FOR ANIMALS

The Reagents are contained in small glass ampoules. A full 5 c.c.’s constitutes one treatment for an animal corresponding to the size of a mature dairy cow. The dosage is decreased for smaller animals; for example, a dairy heifer under one year of age is given a 2.5 c.c.’s dose, while for the average size dog a 1 c.c.’s dose is satisfactory. The material is injected with a special hypodermic syringe using a large-bore needle. The injection is made intramuscularly, usually in the neck region.

Recommendations regarding the diet of the treated animals include decreasing the amount of protein in the ration, and, in the case of dairy cattle, silage should be eliminated as well.

When treating mastitis cases, it is recommended that for the acute type, the Treatment should be made without delay and with the chronic type, the change of ration should be in effect for a few days prior to Treatment. Another method used in treating chronic mastitis is to administer the Treatment during the dry period, and retreat if signs of the disease recur after freshening.

In British Columbia, the Treatments are distributed by a representative of the Dr. W. F. Koch Laboratories and are available for use to all veterinarians.

REPORTED USE OF THE KOCH TREATMENT

The use of the Koch Treatment Therapy on livestock has been recorded in two provinces of the Dominion; namely, British Columbia and Ontario.

The most extensive investigation yet carried out in an effort to determine the therapeutic value of the Koch Treatment was conducted by a committee named by the British Columbia Minister of Agriculture in October of 1944. Prior to this date, much interest and enthusiasm had been created by a few dairymen who had obtained favorable response from the use of this Treatment on their cattle. The Minister, wishing to form an opinion based on accurate investigation, named a committee to carry out the investigational work. Represented on the committee were the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, the Provincial Department of Agriculture, the breed associations, an the Dr. W. F. Koch Laboratories.

“Province of British Columbia, Reprints from Department of Agriculture Reports for 1944 and 1945, Koch Treatment Investigation.”

The purpose of the investigation carried out by this committee was not to ascertain the cause of the disease, but solely to determine the value of the Treatment. Data taken from the Department of Agriculture Reports (6) indicates the findings of the investigational committee.

The procedure used with the mastitis cases was as follows: milk specimens were taken from each quarter of the udder of the affected animal by the veterinarian, at the time each animal was injected. Milk samples were taken again in one week and at following monthly intervals. Duplicate samples were sent to two different laboratories for bacteriological examination. A physical examination of the udder was made and noted each time the milk samples were taken.

General Observations Included:

1. During the first week after giving the Treatment there was a decided drop in the bacteria, leukocyte, and chloride content of the milk, as revealed by the bacteriological examinations.

2. A consistent result was a definite softening of the udder after Treatment. The disappearance of fibrous tissue was noticed in a considerable number of cases.

3. Out of a total of 207 affected quarters, only 7 were lost to production.

4. It also appeared that the Treatment had a beneficial effect on digestion, also on the skin and coat.

The detailed results of the mastitis cases are given in the following chart:

In addition to the mastitis cases observed, similar investigational work was carried out with dairy cattle suffering from sterility and infertility.

Prior to giving the Treatment, a physical examination of each animal was made by the veterinarian. All abnormal conditions were left precisely as found. No attempt was made to correct the abnormalities by manipulation or other treatment. The owners were advised not to breed the animal on the appearance of the first estrual period following injection, but to wait for the second appearance to be sure of a normal twenty-one, day return.

The following findings were recorded:

Total number of cases treated — 29

Number of cases showing favorable response (certified in calf) — 21 or 72.4%

Average time sterile before injection — 5.7 months

Average number of times bred before injection — 4.9 times

Average time sterile after injection — 1.7 months

It is of interest to note the various conditions that existed prior to treatment. Of the twenty-one cases that responded to the Treatment, the conditions present were:

Cysts of the ovaries — 2 cases

Cysts of the ovaries and vaginitis — 3 cases

Retained corpus luteum — 3 cases

Retained corpus luteum and vaginitis — 4 cases

Vaginitis — 8 cases

Fibrous ovaries — 1 case

Of the eight cases that did not respond, the conditions present were:

Nymphomaniacs — 2 cases

Cysts of the ovaries — 3 cases

Cysts of the ovaries and vaginitis — 2 cases

Retained corpus luteum and vaginitis — 1 case

The results obtained with the sterility cases prompted the committee in expressing the opinion that the Treatment has considerable merit in constitutional derangements and unbalance, as found in sterility and infertility; and that the intelligent use of this material combined with known manipulative treatment would possibly give more satisfactory results than either treatment alone.

At the preliminary meeting, prior to the investigation, the veterinarians present expressed themselves as being very skeptical about the value of the Koch Treatment. Since that time, however, a change of opinion on the part of the veterinary profession in British Columbia is indicated, by the passing of a resolution at the regular meeting of the British Columbia Veterinary Association in January, 1946, to the effect that the official results of the Koch Treatment in veterinary practice were reasonable grounds to warrant continuing its use.

Additional information concerning the treatment of dairy cattle is being compiled as time goes on. Wood (7) has gathered the following data obtained from dairy herds in the Lower Fraser Valley.

FARM A

Acute Mastitis Cases Treated with “Glyoxylide”

Cows taken out of production due to acute mastitis — 22 head

Cows returned to production following Treatment — 22 head—100%

Number of quarters of udders definitely infected — 40 quarters

Number of quarters of udders returned to production — 33 quarters—82.5%

Number of quarters showing subsequent infection — 1 quarter—2.5%

Number of quarters lost due to teat injury plus mastitis — 4 quarters—10%

Number of quarters lost due to mastitis only — 2 quarters—5%

Total number of Treatments administered — 36 Treatments

Average number of Treatments per cow — 1.63 Treatments

Cows that have milked 12 months or more since Treatment — 16 cows

Cows that have shown no recurrence of mastitis after milking for 12 months or more since Treatment — 13 cows—81.2%

Chronic Mastitis Cases Treated With “Glyoxylide”

Cows out of production due to chronic mastitis — 15 head

Cows returned to production — 15 head—100%

Number of quarters definitely infected — 39 quarters

Number of quarters completely cured — 33 quarters—84.62%

Number of quarters lost due to mastitis only — 5 quarters—12.82%

Number of quarters lost due to teat injury plus mastitis — 1 quarter—2.56%

Total number of Treatments given — 15 cows 24 Treatments

Average number of Treatments per cow — 1.60 Treatments

Cows that have milked 12 months or more since Treatment — 8 cows

Cows that have milked 12 months showing no recurrence of mastitis — 7 cows—87.5%

General Cases Including Sterility and Systemic Conditions Treated With “Glyoxylide”

Number of cases treated — 17

Number of complete recoveries — 13—82.3%

Number of doubtful recoveries — 2—11.8%

Number of failures 1— 5.9%

Number of Treatments administered to — 17 cows 20 Treatments

Average number of Treatments administered per cow — 1.18

FARM B

Sterility Cases Treated With “Glyoxylide”

Number of cases treated for sterility — 24 head

Number of cases recovered and in calf — 19 head—79.1%

Number of clinical recoveries, but conception doubtful — 2 head— 8.3%

Number of cases failed to recover; open — 2 head—12.5%

Breeding time lost previous to Treatment in 10 cited cases — 33.9 weeks

Breeding time lost between Treatment and time of conception — 7.1 weeks

FARMS C AND D

Sterility and Systemic Cases Treated With “Glyoxylide”

Number of cases treated for sterility — 9 cases

Number of recoveries — 5 cases—55%

Number of cases treated for systemic conditions — 15 cases

Number of recoveries — 9 cases—60%

The foregoing summaries give additional evidence relative to the merit of the Treatment. It is difficult to determine to what degree the variation in the percentage of successful cases in separate herds was influenced by environmental conditions, management procedures, and the severity of the pathological state.

In Ontario an attempt was made to secure the aid and cooperation of the provincial Department of Agriculture concerning the use of the Koch Treatment. No agreement was reached. The information on the use of the Koch Treatment in Ontario is therefore limited to reports by a representative of the Dr. W. F. Koch Laboratories and one practicing veterinarian.

Arnott (8) reports that the Treatment has been used in fifty different herds on approximately three hundred cows. Considerable fieldwork was carried out in Middlesex County on mastitis cases. Sixty-six animals presenting the disease in acute and chronic states were treated and observed. The dairymen made the observations.

In twenty-seven cases, using one Treatment, all signs of the disease were eliminated. The same result was had in twenty-seven additional cases using two Treatments; while in another twelve instances, the result fell short of complete success, or no noticeable benefit was derived.

The indication is that the Treatment was successful in eighty percent of the cases. However, the standards set for a successful treatment are not indicated. The differences in the opinions of the dairymen may also have an influence on the percentage of the so-called successful Treatments.

It is suggested that the Koch Treatment can be used to control Bang’s disease in cattle. The Treatment is used with three objectives; first, to establish the normal reproduction of healthy living calves; secondly, to prevent the spread of the disease in an infected herd; and thirdly, to change positive blood tests for Bang’s disease to negative readings.

Arnott and Campbell (9) report that in three herds where serious losses due to Bang’s disease were encountered, fifty-five animals were given one Treatment. Two of these animals were sold and were lost track of, but with the remaining fifty-three animals no further losses occurred. The results may be very misleading. It is quite possible that the value of the Treatment is being judged at a time when the disease has run its course and is becoming chronic. At this stage, abortions can be expected to decrease as a result of acquired immunity and a large percentage of cows produce apparently normal calves.

The same workers present the following findings when using the Treatment in an attempt to change positive blood agglutination tests from positive to negative. Two animals in one herd were blood tested on April 13th, giving a positive reading. The Koch Treatment was administered on April 28th, May 7th, and May 15th. On June 26th, another blood sample was taken from each animal and both were found to be negative. The blood samples were drawn by a veterinarian and were tested at the Ontario Veterinary College. Also in the case of another ten cows, which were shown to be positive by the agglutination test, following the administration of the Koch Treatment, the blood picture improved in nine instances with five negative readings. These results are encouraging but cannot be regarded as highly significant considering the number of cases involved.

Another interesting use of the Treatment is reported by Arnott and Campbell (9). An outbreak of Johne’s disease occurred in a dairy herd. Post-mortem examination of one of the animals confirmed the presence of the disease. Under supervision of the staff of the Ontario Veterinary College, tests were made which revealed the presence of the disease in eight other cows in the herd. The owner was advised to dispose of all the infected animals, to protect the rest of the herd. However, he decided to try the Koch Treatment. The eight positive animals were treated three times at weekly intervals. Six weeks after the first Treatment, the entire herd was given the clinical test for Johne’s disease. Another animal was found positive to the test, but among the eight found positive at the first test and subsequently treated, four were found to be negative. These four animals improved in condition and returned to normal milk production.

The number of cases cited is very limited, but there is an indication that some degree of immunity was established following the Treatment. The possibilities suggested are worth consideration because Johne’s disease is very widespread and has been observed in practically every country where cattle are raised on a large scale. Up to the present time, however, no satisfactory method of treating cattle affected with Johne’s disease has been found.

Specific remedies for each disease constitute the normal approach to disease eradication and control. An important feature of this new method of combating disease is the use of the same Treatment on a wide range of pathological states. Some critics may consider this sufficient reason to class the Koch Treatment as a “cure-all.” If, however, by using the Reagents, the natural immunity mechanisms of the body are strengthened, it is logical to believe that many diseases can be brought under control.

All the available data concerning the use of the Treatment are taken from information gathered by workers in the field. There has been no well-controlled experimental work conducted. The basis for evaluating the merit of the Treatment must therefore be confined to results obtained in the field. This leaves open many possibilities for error in judgment, due, for the most part, to the variations in environment. These variations include different management practices, the wide range in level of nutrition, the nature of sanitation measures, and many other factors influencing the health of animals.

SURVEY OF DAIRY HERDS IN THE CHILLIWACK AREA

In order to supplement the foregoing information and to give some indications relative to the present status of the Koch Treatment, a limited survey of a few dairy herds in the Chilliwack area of the Fraser Valley was conducted. The Treatment was first used in this area early in 1944. These initial experiences stimulated the interest of the veterinarians and the dairymen. The use of the Treatment continued, and soon became more widespread. At the present time, the local veterinarians are using the Treatment to combat various diseases and physiological disturbances commonly met with in dairy cattle.

An attempt was made to obtain a representative sample of the herds and not to include only those where the most desirable results were obtained. A local veterinarian, who administered the largest percentage of the Treatments in the area, chose the herds that were visited. In all instances the opinion of the dairyman was solicited and the environmental conditions were noted. The farms were visited during the winter months when the cattle were confined to the barn. The physical appearance of the animals and the accommodation provided, afforded a fairly reliable guide as to the efficiency of the management procedures. No attempt was made to analyze the rations and the possible influence of nutrition.

At the outset it was intended to secure case histories of the treated animals, but it was soon realized that the lack of accurate records constituted a severe handicap to obtaining suitable information. The nature and extent of the records varied greatly between herds. In some herds it was possible to obtain fairly reliable case histories, but with the majority, where the owner’s memory constituted the main source of information, the findings are limited to not more than a general observation.

CASE HISTORIES

FARM Cl

1. GLENGARRY ANN—Tattoo EF-23U. Born December 24, 1940—Acute Mastitis.

March 9, 1944—Calved as a three-year-old, with her second calf. Normal milk flow increased up to 45 pounds per day.

March 30, 1944—Acute mastitis developed with a high temperature and refusal of feed. The udder was inflamed and swollen, particularly in the right hindquarter. The milk was discarded.

March 31, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide.

April 6, 1944-By this date the inflammation and the swelling in the udder had reduced. The milking machine was used again, and marketable milk was produced from all quarters. Milk production increased up to 40 pounds per day.

There has been no reappearance of this condition; the cow has produced and reproduced normally. She calved again on March 9, 1945, and March 7, 1946.

December 28, 1946—Due to calve again on March 23, 1947. The udder was examined; it appeared to be normal in every respect.

2. GLENGARRY DAISY—Tattoo EF-7T. Born May 23, 19:39. Acute Mastitis.

December 25, 1945—The cow calved normally. Acute mastitis developed in the right front and right rear quarters. There was no fever, but feed was refused. The milk was discarded from the infected quarters.

January 11, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide. The condition improved immediately and the milk from all quarters appeared normal to the Geneva blotter test.

January 30, 1946—Return of the previous condition.

January 31, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

February 7. 1946—Milk secretion from all quarters had returned to normal, giving a normal reaction to the blotter test.

December 28, 1946 — Normal production continued throughout the lactation period. Examination of the udder revealed the physical texture to be good. There was a small amount of fibrous tissue evident in the previously affected quarters.

3. GLENGARRY NANCY —Tattoo EF-20U. Born November 11, 1940. Acute Mastitis.

This animal was taken to the Chilliwack Fair on September 9, 1945.

September 10, 1945—Acute mastitis developed. The udder was swollen and inflamed; the infection was localized in the right front quarters. The temperature reading was 106 degrees.

September 11, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. An immediate response was noted by the reduction of swelling and inflammation.

September 15, 1945—All quarters were producing saleable milk. Blotter test reaction normal on all quarters.

February 6,1946—Calved again with no recurrence of mastitis.

December 28. 1946—Still producing normally; physical condition of the udder good.

4. MAPLE SPRINGS DAISY—Tattoo AKR-5X. Born September 7, 1943. Acute Mastitis.

July 25, 1946—Cow calved. Two weeks following calving, acute mastitis developed in the left rear quarter and spread immediately to the right front quarter. Udder hard and swollen. High temperature—106 degrees approximately for three days.

August 17, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide. The udder softened gradually and the milk from all quarters returned to normal quality.

December 28, 1946—Normal milk produced from all quarters. Volume of milk secreted from the affected quarters approximately one-third that from the corresponding unaffected quarters. The physical texture of the two affected quarters was soft and pliable with no evidence of fibrosis.

5. MALE SPRINGS CHRISTMAS — Born December 18, 1942. Acute Mastitis.

November 19, 1944 — Cow calved with mastitis in right rear quarter.

November 20, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide.

November 24, 1944—Milk from the infected quarter showed normal to the blotter test. There was no recurrence of mastitis during the balance of the lactation period.

March 2, 1946—Calved again; no recurrence of mastitis.

December 28, 1946—Normal production continues. Udder appears to be in a normal, healthy condition.

6. CHARITY—Born April 21, 1944. — Sterility and Acute Mastitis.

This virgin heifer was bred four times and remained sterile for a period of 4 months prior to Treatment.

January 3, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

February 19, 1946—Bred again to the same sire. Conceived to this service.

This heifer was taken to the Chilliwack Fair in September 1946. Two days prior to showing, acute mastitis developed in the left rear quarter. This was a non-functioning udder at this time. The udder was swollen and hard; feed was refused.

September 11, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide at the exhibition grounds. The response was immediate. Appetite restored. The recovery was such that this animal was awarded the female reserve Grand Championship of the show.

November 19, 1946—Heifer calved; sound on all quarters.

December 28, 1946 — Milk production 48-50 pounds per day. Udder appears to be in excellent condition.

7. BEAUTY—Born September 7, 1944. Sterility.

Virgin heifer, bred 5 times, and remained sterile for 4 months prior to Treatment.

January 3, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

February 20, 1946—Bred again to the same sire. Conceived to this service, calving on December 7, 1946.

8. GERTRUDE—Born July 24, 1944. Sterility.

Virgin heifer, bred 5 times, and remained sterile for 4.5 months prior to Treatment.

January 3, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

February 19, 1946—Bred again to the same sire. Conceived to this service, calving on December 17, 1946.

9. KILLILANA HOPE—Ear Tag M392. Born February 8, 1936. Sterility.

This cow was a chronic buller exhibiting continual estrum for a period of 4 months prior to Treatment.

March 15, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide.

March 21, 1945—Estrual cycle controlled.

April 11, 1945—Bred; conceived to this service.

January 24. 1946—Cow calved. No recurrence of the previous condition. Bred for the first time following calving on April 24,1946.

December 28, 1946 — Certified to be in calf to the April 24 breeding.

10. DENTONIA MAMIE—Tattoo OE-8N. Born December 23, 1935. Sterility.

March 11, 1945—Calved. This cow failed to come in season. Allowing 8 weeks for the appearance of the first estrual period following parturition, estrum was suppressed for 34 days prior to Treatment.

July 15, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide.

August 2. 1945—The first heat period following parturition occurred. The cow was bred and conceived to this breeding.

May 15, 1946—Calved. The same condition which existed the previous year returned. Again allowing 8 weeks for the appearance of the first estrual period following parturition estrum was suppressed for 109 days before Treatment.

November 1, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

November 30, 1946—The second heat period following parturition occurred. The cow was bred and she conceived to this service.

March 15, 1947—The cow was certified to be in calf.

11. MAPLE SPRINGS DEHLIA—Tattoo AKR-3X. Born June 1, 1943. Sterility and Acetonemia.

Virgin heifer bred 6 times and remained sterile for 5 months prior to Treatment.

January 20, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide.

March 5, 1945—Second heat period following Treatment; bred and conceived to this service.

December 16, 1945—Calved. Produced 38 pounds of milk per day before calving.

December 28, 1945 — Acetonemia developed and despite treatment with sucrose and molasses, the condition became more pronounced. Feed was refused and a severe nervous condition was evident.

January 3, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide. There was an immediate response. Some feed was taken 2 hours after the administration of the Treatment. The condition continued to improve steadily until the recovery was complete.

June 3, 1946—In season and bred.

December 28, 1946 — Certified to be in calf. Due to calve on March 11, 1947.

12. BRINDLE—Born December 10, 1940. Acetonemia.

December 5, 1944. — Calved. Acetonemia developed 3 weeks after calving. This cow was treated for four days with hydrochloric acid, with no apparent response. Appetite poor.

January 5, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. Normal appetite was restored 36 hours after Treatment. A satisfactory recovery resulted with an improvement in general condition.

December 28, 1946—This cow has calved twice since December 1944, with no recurrence of Acetonemia.

13. WILLOWS BLOSSOM—Born August 27, 1938. Acetonemia.

December 6, 1945—Calved.

Acetonemia developed 3 weeks following parturition. Feed was refused and the cow was unable to stand.

January 3, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

January 5, 1946—The cow was on feed again but still remained weak on her legs.

January 12, 1946—Appetite back to normal; able to stand normally; recovery appeared to be complete.

March 22, 1946—In season; bred and conceived to this service.

December 28, 1946—This cow is in excellent physical condition; immediately prior to calving.

14. KILLILANA BLOSSOM—Born January 6, 1942. Summer Snuffles or Rhinitis.

This cow had difficulty in breathing and showed nasal discharge while on pasture during the spring and summer months of 1946. She was treated with Glyoxylide in May, June and July. A definite improvement was noted following the first Treatment, but the recovery was not complete—the disease still persisted.

December 28, 1944—The cow still remains in the herd. A small amount of nasal discharge was evident and the breathing was almost normal. This condition can be expected because the difficult breathing is more pronounced during the warm months, and the disease tends to subside, or becomes more or less dormant, during the cool season.

Environmental Conditions—Excellent.

The animals in this herd receive excellent care. The milking herd is kept in a lounging shed, except for the length of time required daily for feeding and milking.

Owner’s Opinion: The owner states that he is well satisfied with the results obtained from this method of Treatment. He also feels that in order to derive the maximum benefits, it is necessary to administer the Glyoxylide as soon as possible when needed, and to eliminate silage and high protein feeds from the ration immediately after Treatment.

FARM C2

1. BUTTERCUP—Tattoo P-1957, 2-year-old. Acute Mastitis.

Two days prior to calving, acute mastitis developed in the left front quarter, which was swollen and hard. The excretion from this quarter was thin and serum-like.

March 11, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide.

March 12, 1945—Calved with normal milk secretion from three unaffected quarters.

March 21, 1945—Normal saleable milk was produced from all four quarters. The swelling and hardness in the entire udder was greatly reduced. During the remainder of this lactation period the volume of milk secreted from the affected quarter was two-thirds that of the other fore-quarter.

April 6, 1946—Calved again with no recurrence of mastitis.

December 29, 1946—Still producing normally from all quarters. The physical condition of the udder is normal—no fibrosis evident.

2. RITA—3-year-old —Acute Mastitis.

December 4. 1946—Calved with second calf.

January 4, 1947—One month after calving, acute mastitis developed in the left front quarter with swelling and hardness. The milk from this quarter was discarded.

January 6, 1947—Treated with Glyoxylide. The condition remained the same—no response. Two injections of penicillin were given directly into the quarter.

March 3, 1947—The affected quarter is atrophied and is almost dry. The limited secretion was clear and serum-like.

3. JOSIE—Tattoo P1284, 2-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

June 18, 1944—Calved with first calf. The udder remained extremely tender following parturition after the normal swelling and inflammation had subsided. Difficulty was encountered when using the milking machine on this heifer. The milk secreted appeared normal—no clotting or stringiness evident.

July 12, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide. Forty-eight hours after Treatment, the tenderness had disappeared sufficiently to allow normal use of the milking machine.

December 26, 1946—This cow had calved twice since the previous trouble was encountered and has remained normal and healthy in every respect.

4. BETTY—Mature cow—Sterility and Chronic Mastitis.

This cow was purchased in April 1944, and was supposedly in calf. A subsequent examination by the veterinarian revealed that she was still open. After the examination, she came in heat normally, but failed to conceive with continuous return to the bull. She was treated with Glyoxylide in November 1944, and January 1945.

March 7, 1945—In season; bred and conceived to this service.

December 12, 1945—Calved. Failed to come in season following parturition. Allowing 8 weeks for the appearance of the first estrual period following calving, estrum was suppressed for 49 days prior to Treatment.

March 31, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

April 2, 1946—First heat period following Treatment; bred and conceived to this service.

November 1946—A chronic mastitic condition developed during the drying-up procedure. All four quarters were affected.

November 18, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide.

January 9, 1947—Calved normally with no appearance of mastitis.

March 3, 1947—Producing 50 pounds of milk daily; all quarters normal.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS-Good.

OWNER’S OPINION— The owner expressed himself as being satisfied with the results of the Treatment.

FARM C3

1. FAIR ACRES MYRTLE—Acute Mastitis.

January 23, 1947—Calved.

Acute mastitis developed in the left rear and right front quarters following parturition. The milk produced from these quarters was not saleable.

February 2, 1947—The affected quarters were treated with an injection of penicillin; no response.

February 11, 1947—Treated with Glyoxylide; no response.

March 1, 1947—The secretion from the two affected quarters remains unsaleable and is diminishing steadily. The secretion had a serum-like appearance containing some clotted material. The udder presented a definite unbalanced condition. The affected quarters were hard and unpliable.

2. MURIEL—Acute Mastitis. January 19, 1947—Calved.

Two weeks following parturition, acute mastitis developed in the right rear quarter.

February 11, 1947—Treated with Glyoxylide.

The infection spread to the right fore-quarter following the Treatment.

March 1, 1947—The secretion from the right half of the udder still remains abnormal; the fluid produced was serum-like, containing some clotted material. There was considerable fibrosis evident in the affected quarters.

3. DORA—Chronic Mastitis.

This cow had an attack of acute mastitis in the right fore-quarter during the previous lactation period. The condition seemed to clear up but evidenced itself again during the drying-up period.

December 20, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide just prior to calving.

December 23, 1946—The cow calved normally and produced marketable milk on all four quarters.

March 1, 1946—Daily milk production—40 pounds per day; normal on all quarters. The udder was soft and pliable and in excellent physical condition.

4. PRAIRIE VIEW PANSY—Chronic Mastitis

During the previous lactation period, an acute flare-up of mastitis occurred in the left rear quarter. One intra-mammary injection of penicillin was given. The infection apparently cleared up, as normal milk was produced from this quarter during the remainder of the lactation period. The udder remained normal until just prior to calving again (Feb., 1947) when an abnormal amount of swelling and inflammation occurred.

February 11, 1947—Treated with Glyoxylide.

February 14, 1947—Calved.

March 1, 1947—Normal milk produced from all quarters—daily milk production 35 pounds per day. The physical texture of the udder was normal.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS—Good.

OWNER’S OPINION— The owner was disappointed and dissatisfied with the results obtained.

FARM C4

1. OLIVE VALE—Ear Tag 47563 —Acute Mastitis.

October 25, 1946—This heifer calved for the first time as a late 2-year-old. Normal milk production followed and increased to 65 pounds per day.

January 5, 1947—Acute mastitis developed in the left forequarter, which was swollen and hard. The secretion from this quarter was very thick and white in appearance. Treated with Glyoxylide.

January 8, 1947—A marked improvement was evident three days after Treatment. The quarter became softer and the milk improved gradually in physical appearance.

March 1, 1947—A complete recovery has been made. The milk production at this date was 60 pounds per day. It was impossible to tell from a physical examination of the udder which quarter had been previously affected.

2. FERN VALE—Ear Tag 47567—Chronic Acetonemia with Scours.

October 23, 1946—This heifer calved as a late 2-year-old with her first calf. Normal milk production increased up to 60 pounds per day following parturition.

November 25, 1946—Milk production began to decrease and continued until only 15 pounds were produced daily. This condition was accompanied by scouring. The veterinarian diagnosed the condition as Acetonemia. Both sucrose and chloral hydrate treatments were used, but the condition remained the same.

December 28, 1946—Treated with Glyoxylide. A steady improvement was noted following the Treatment with Glyoxylide. The scouring cleared up, the acetone body content of the urine reduced steadily, and milk production increased.

March 1, 1947—The cow appeared to be in excellent health. The milk production recorded on the previous day was 52 pounds.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS—Good.

OWNER’S OPINION— The owner was well satisfied with the manner in which his cows reacted to the Glyoxylide.

FARM C5

1. SAUCY SUE—4-year-old—Acute Mastitis.

November 2, 1945—Cow calved.

November 15, 1945—Acute mastitis developed affecting all four quarters. All the milk produced was unsaleable.

November 18, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. Within two weeks after giving the Treatment, marketable milk was produced from all quarters. There was no reappearance of mastitis during the remainder of the lactation period.

December 20, 1946—The cow calved again with no recurrence of mastitis.

March 3, 1947—The cow was in excellent health, producing 40 pounds per day and sound on all four quarters.

2. PANSY-4-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

During the summer of 1946, this cow was subject to intermittent flare-ups of mastitis in the right rear quarter. She was treated with Glyoxylide in November 1946, prior to drying-up.

February 28, 1947—Cow calved; normal milk secretion from all quarters.

March 3, 1947—The daily milk production was 50 pounds per day; sound on all four quarters.

3. TULIP—4-year-old—Rheumatism.

This cow suffered from a rheumatic condition affecting the hind quarters. This condition, which existed for approximately two years, prior to Treatment, was aggravated by the confinement during the winter months. The cow appeared to be stiff and sore on the hind legs.

November 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. There was no appreciable response to the Treatment.

March 3, 1947—The condition was growing steadily worse, and the owner expects to dispose of the cow.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS—Fair.

OWNER’S OPINION— The owner believes that the Treatment has some value, but he considers the cost to be too high.

FARM C6

1. RUBY—5-year-old—Acute Mastitis.

March 10, 1944—Calved. Acute mastitis developed in both rear quarters.

March 23, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide, no response.

April 3, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide. The condition cleared up gradually until both affected quarters were producing normal milk. The recorded production for this lactation period is 477 pounds of butterfat.

March 26, 1945—Calved again with no recurrence of mastitis. The recorded production for this lactation period is 543 pounds of butterfat.

January 2, 1947—This cow still remains healthy in every respect.

2. PAMELA—5-year-old—Acute Mastitis.

August 4, 1944—Calved. Three weeks following parturition, mastitis developed in the two fore-quarters. The quarters were hard and swollen and produced a straw-colored fluid.

September 1, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide. There was an immediate softening of the udder and marketable milk was produced from both quarters within one week following the Treatment. Recorded milk production for this lactation period is 428 pounds of butterfat.

December 10, 1945—Calved; no return of mastitis.

January 2, 1947—This cow still remains in good health and is producing normally.

3. MAE WEST—6-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

May 17, 1944—Calved. Intermittent attacks of mastitis occurred during the summer months of 1944. Stringy milk was produced from both rear quarters at different intervals. One Treatment of Glyoxylide was given in the late summer. The condition cleared up completely.

January 2, 1947—There has been no return of mastitis during two subsequent lactations.

4. PEGGY—5-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

January 1945—Stringy material and a water fluid was produced when attempting to dry-up the cow.

January 10, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. Milking was continued throughout the normal dry period. The infection was effectively controlled.

March 5, 1946—Calved. By this date normal milk secretion was obtained from all quarters. Recorded milk production during the lactation period is 492 pounds of butterfat.

January 2, 1947—Milk production was still normal on all quarters.

5. LILLIUMS—13-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

This old cow suffered from chronic mastitis in both rear quarters. The condition was present for one year prior to Treatment.

April 19, 1944—Treated with Glyoxylide. There was little, if no improvement noticed, and the cow was sold to the butcher.

6. WILLA—2-year-old—Chronic Mastitis.

December 8, 1945—Calved for the first time. Two weeks after calving, stringy milk was produced intermittently from all four quarters. The udder was slightly hardened and tender.

December 29, 1945—Treated with Glyoxylide. There was a marked improvement within a few days, followed by a complete recovery.

January 2, 1947—The cow was just drying up after completing a 365-day record of 720 pounds of butterfat. This has since been reported as the highest 2-year-old record registered under Cow Testing Association Supervision in British Columbia. General health and condition of the udder were good.

There has been considerable trouble encountered in this herd in getting virgin heifers in calf. All the heifers are bred for the first time so that they will calve when they are approximately 2 years old. The following table indicates the results that have been obtained from using the Koch Treatment as a remedy for this situation:

Number of cases treated — 10 cases

Number successful — 8 cases—80%

Number of failures — 2 cases—20%

Time sterile from first breeding to time of Treatment — 5.6 months

Time sterile after Treatment — 1.3 months

Number of Treatments given to ten heifers — 13 Treatments

Average number of Treatments per heifer — 1.3 Treatments

Each individual heifer that responded to the Treatment was bred to the same bull that had been used initially.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS—Fair.

OWNER’S OPINION— The owner states that he is well pleased with the results obtained from using the Treatment. He considers that it is effective in keeping an important percentage of the animals in production that would otherwise have to be replaced.

SUMMARY OF CASES CITED:

ACUTE MASTITIS:

Number of animals out of production that were treated — 14

Number of animals returned to production following Treatment — 12—85.7%

Number of quarters infected — 22

Number of quarters returned to production — 18—81.8%

Number of quarters lost — 4—18.2%

Number of cows that have milked for 12 months or more following Treatment — 9

Number of cows that have milked for 12 months following Treatment with no recurrence of mastitis — 8—88%

Total number of Treatments given — 15

Average number of Treatments per animal — 1.07

CHRONIC MASTITIS:

Number of animals out of production that were treated — 9

Number of animals returned to production following Treatment — 8 —38%

Number of quarters infected — 23

Number of quarters returned to production — 20—86.9%

Number of quarters lost — 3—13.1%

Number of animals that have milked for 12 months or more following Treatment — 5

Number of animals that have milked for 12 months following Treatment with no recurrence of mastitis — 4—80%

Total number of Treatments given — 9

Average number of Treatments per animal — 1

STERILITY:

Number of animals treated — 18

Number of complete recoveries — 13—72.2%

Number of doubtful recoveries — 3—16.6%

Number of failures — 2—11.2%

Length of time sterile before Treatment — 4.6 months

Length of time sterile after Treatment — 1.4 months

Total number of Treatments given — 23

Average number of Treatments per animal — 1.28

SYSTEMIC CONDITIONS:

Number of animals treated — 6

Number of successful recoveries — 3—50%

Number of failures — 2—33.3%

Number of doubtful recoveries — 1—16.6%

Total number of Treatments given — 8

Average number of Treatments per animal — 1.33

The summary of the cases cited gives a somewhat false impression of the over-all effectiveness of the Treatment. Generally speaking, the data were taken from herds with the more desirable management practices and environmental conditions. It was not possible to collect and incorporate any specific data from herds with deficient records. It is the writer’s opinion that the percentage of favorable results would be considerably lower if this information had been available.

Some of the herd owners have recently seen fit to institute a policy of herd Treatment. The plan is to give an injection to all the milking animals during the dry period to serve in a prophylactic capacity. As an inducement to the herd owners, a considerable reduction in the price per Treatment is made to those who adopt this policy. The following summary shows the general trends relative to the Koch Treatment in the Chilliwack area:—

Total number of herd owners consulted — 14

Number of owners who are satisfied with the Treatment and are continuing to use it — 10

Number of owners who are not satisfied with the Treatment and are not continuing to use i — t 4

Number of owners who voluntarily expressed the opinion that the cost per Treatment is too high — 5

Number of owners who have adopted the policy of herd Treatment — 6

The following table serves as a comparison between the previously reported results and the data collected by the writer. In each instance, the number of cases cited varies considerably and the methods used in compiling the information were by no means uniform. However, there does seem to be a general agreement as to the apparent effectiveness of the Treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

Heredity and environment are the two broad factors, which determine and influence the ultimate performance of animals. The existence of an inherited resistance or susceptibility to disease is by no means a new concept. The experimental evidence, with animals to substantiate this idea, is relatively new and limited. Nevertheless, during recent years there has been a growing interest in the natural resistance to disease shown by some individual animals. Interest has been stimulated primarily by advances in genetic knowledge, particularly in relation to physiological characteristics. During recent years, the plant breeder has made remarkable progress in this field by developing disease resistant strains. The question then arises whether or not the animal breeder could make similar progress. Self-fertilization is a natural process for many crop plants, and this makes it possible to retain genetic purity in succeeding generations. Such is not the case with the animal breeder. At the best, he can employ a much less intense system of inbreeding in an attempt to fix any heredity for disease resistance that may now exist in a diluted form in animal populations.

It is the writer’s opinion that accurate records of disease incidence should be kept and that these records be given due consideration when future selection of breeding stock is made. It is also well to keep in mind that selection, carried out in the absence of disease, may lead to the development of lines that have no specific disease resistance.

In the past, in the case of animal diseases, nearly all the attention has been focused on the disease organisms themselves, the tissue changes brought about by their presence in the host, and therapeutic measures of control. Such studies have been very fruitful and have made the major contribution to the present measures used to control disease. For example, the development and extensive use of biologics, such as vaccines, to avoid disease indicates the importance of this work. The Koch Treatment used in an attempt to maintain or institute the normal physiological functioning of the body, thus increasing the natural resistance or immunity to disease, represents a new approach to disease control.

To appreciate fully the suggested possibilities of this new therapeutic measure, it is necessary not only to study the results obtained with livestock but also to consider the many applications that have been made in human medicine. Conclusive experimental evidence is lacking at present, and in order to determine accurately the true worth of the Koch Treatment, much more accurate information must be gathered. Only time will tell what position it will attain in future endeavors to maintain the health of animals and humans.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Bryan, A. H., and Bryan, C. G., “Principles and Practice of Bacteriology,” New York, Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1940.

2. Eichhorn, A., “Protective Mechanisms Against Disease”, Keeping Livestock Healthy, United States Department of Agriculture, 1942.

3. Ellis, N. R., “Nutrition and Disease Resistance”, Keeping Livestock Healthy, United States Department of Agriculture, 1942.

4. Koch, W. F., “Natural Immunity”, Detroit, 1936.

5. Arnott, D. H., “Rationales of a Fundamental Chemical Therapy”, Journal of the National Medical Society, vol. 1, pp. 104-106, October, 1945.

6. Province of British Columbia, Reprints from Department of Agriculture Reports for 1944 and 1945, “Koch Treatment Investigation”, Victoria, King’s Printer, 1946.

7. Wood, S. N., Unpublished material, University of B. C.

8. Arnott, D. H., “The Koch Treatment Used for the Control of Mastitis in Cows”, London, Ontario, 1943.

9. Arnott, D. H. and Campbell, T. J. “The Cure and Prevention of Mastitis and Contagious Abortion”, London, Ontario, 1943.

The Koch Glyoxylide Treatment

Koch Investigation Concluded

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:

Reprints from Department of Agriculture Reports for 1946 and 1947

Page 24 of the 1946 Report

Since the close of the Government’s Koch Treatment Investigation, which was reported on pages 20 to 25 of the Fortieth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, it appears that a considerable number of veterinarians within this Province are using the Koch (Glyoxylide) Treatment with satisfactory results. The recent reduction in cost of the Glyoxylide has enabled many dairy-cattle owners to subject their whole herds to the Treatment.

During the season of 1946 a fair-sized herd on Vancouver Island was losing young heifers at the time of first calving. The trouble was diagnosed as Johne’s disease, and a concentration of infection was found in this isolated herd that had sustained many losses; however, for a period of some few months there were no deaths in the herd, then four cases broke out in rapid succession during the spring. This trouble was brought to the attention of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, who, at the request of the owner, inoculated all animals in the herd and one week later re-inoculated the four animals, which showed clinical symptoms of Johne’s disease, using the Koch Treatment. The suffering of the animals with the scouring was stopped immediately, and the herd has continued to make steady improvement ever since. However, this herd is being watched with a view to ascertaining what the condition may be in the coming spring. The general tone of the herd has been greatly improved.

Pages 14 to 16 of the 1947 Report 

In the summer of 1944 the Department learned that the use of the Koch Glyoxylide in the treatment of dairy herds around the Chilliwack area, affected with mastitis, had been followed by results which were so good that an important development in ‘the control of the disease by the use of this new Treatment seemed probable.’ Upon this being brought to the attention of the then Minister, he requested that Dr. D. H. Arnott, of London, Ont., from whom the material had been obtained, be asked to provide the Department with the fullest possible information. Dr. Arnott supplied copies of the books published by Dr. Koch and the five pamphlets, which he himself had written on the use of the Koch Treatment on farm animals.

After careful study of the literature the Minister decided that an entirely new approach to the study of disease and its Treatment had been disclosed, and in response to an invitation extended to him by the Minister, Dr. Arnott came to British Columbia in September, 1944, to discuss the subject, as the result of which, at the urgent request of the breeders of the Lower Fraser Valley, the Minister named a committee to carry out accurate investigations, upon the results of which he could base an opinion.

In each succeeding year since 1944 the British Columbia Department of Agriculture has reported on the progress of investigations of the Koch Treatment of farm animals. These investigations have been carried on with a number of different types of diseases, and in every instance we have been able to confirm and corroborate the outstanding clinical results reported by Dr. Arnott in his publications touching on the successful treatment of these various pathological states. In 1944 we recorded the results of treating seventy-one cases of mastitis, and the following year this investigation was continued and twenty-nine cases of sterility or infertility were treated. In both years the results of the investigations were satisfactory, and while some cases failed to respond completely to the Treatment, the majority of them did so. In all our work the Department of Agriculture found Dr. D. H. Arnott to be most cooperative and helpful.

Last year we indicated that animals showing clinical symptoms of Johne’s disease were inoculated in May with Glyoxylide Treatments and re-inoculated a week later. Now, after eighteen months’ observation, Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinarian, states that this herd which at the request of the owner was given the Glyoxylide Treatment in May, 1946, is apparently in good health. On October 22, 1947, he stated: “At that time, out of a herd of between twenty-five to thirty milking cows, there were four clinical cases, with one in the very advanced stages of the disease. Checks made periodically since that date have shown that all clinical cases recovered. The general over-all production of the herd has shown, by cow-testing records, to be up to a very high standard. The cattle are all in very satisfactory condition, and from the standpoint of disease for which they were treated not a single additional case of Johne’s disease has appeared, and the owner is highly satisfied.” Since reporting the above, Dr. Gunn has discovered that two additional cows, which have been added to the herd are showing clinical symptoms of Johne’s disease. At the owner’s request he has administered the necessary injections of Glyoxylide. These cases also are being closely followed up because it is evident that contamination remains on the premises.

Because of the way in which Dr. Arnott and Dr. Campbell corroborate our findings in this connection, we reproduce below their statement as shown on pages 10 and 11 of “The Cure and Prevention of Mastitis and Contagious Abortion:”

“In concluding, we have thought it well to place on record here, authentic clinical data concerning an infectious, contagious disease for which today, except for the Koch Treatment, ‘There is no known cure for this disease after symptoms develop, and there is no available method to immunize cattle against this infection. Treatment must, therefore, be restricted to preventive measures. It is consequently in the best interests of the owner to slaughter animals showing symptoms with the least possible delay.’ (Department of Agriculture, Dominion of Canada, Bulletin No. 167.)

“The disease now conquered for the first time in the history of veterinary surgery is known as Johne’s disease.

“It is a chronic dysentery in cattle; a pseudo-tuherculous enteritis caused by mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

“Mycobacterium is the term given to a genus of bacteria which includes tuberculosis, paratuberculosis and lepra.

“Here is what happened:

“An outbreak of a fatal unidentified disease in a herd brought an investigation by the staff of the Ontario Veterinary College. To assist this work they slaughtered another sick cow and the disease then was identified by post mortem examination to be Johne’s disease. Under supervision of a member of the staff of the Ontario Veterinary College, tests were made which revealed the presence of the disease in eight other cows.

“The experts who had made the diagnosis of Johne’s disease advised the owner to dispose of all affected animals, to protect the rest of the herd. However, he decided to try the Koch Treatment.

“On April 19th, 1943, the Koch Treatment was injected, and repeated twice, at weekly intervals.

“No other treatment was employed, and nothing further was done.

“Six weeks later the entire herd again was given the clinical test. Another animal was found positive to the test. Of the eight found positive at the first test, and subsequently given the Koch Treatment, four were found negative, and therefore should be regarded as having been cured of the disease. They have improved in condition and are milking well.”

In our Annual Report for 1945 it was pointed out that,”life is promoted, sustained, and reproduced by the use of food. For good health the supply must be adequate in amount and variety. For the best normal results it is necessary that the food be well digested, and also that the potential energy contained therein be transferred into living energy though out the body at a vigorous rate, burning the food properly in each individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this purpose. This living chemical reaction is spoken of by medical science as ‘internal respiration,’ and it must take place continuously because Nature has provided the body with no reservoir wherein oxygen may be stored to be drawn upon at will or in time of need. It is upon the degree approaching perfection with which food is thus turned into living energy consistently that conditions requisite for good health are best maintained, that disease is best resisted, that life is best reproduced.

“It is Dr. Koch’s belief that certain carbon compounds perform an important intermediary step in the living chemistry by which food is turned into life itself; and should the supply of these compounds fall below that requisite for the best conditions, life may continue, but vigorous good health may be lost.

“It is Dr. Koch’s belief that a normal supply of these essential carbon compounds often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the Reagents which he discovered.” (Annual Report, Department of Agriculture, British Columbia, 1945, page 24.)

The Department of Agriculture, after making its investigation of different diseases, is inclined to agree with this claim. We have reached our favourable conclusions on the Koch Treatment through a carefully planned method of obtaining practical firsthand information in actual fieldwork among dairy-herd owners. Our observations have established the fact that various pathological states sometimes were present in one animal, all of which cleared up promptly following the administration of the Koch Therapy. It seems only right that we should accept the explanation furnished by Dr. Koch that these and other serious diseases stem from the breakdown of the oxidative mechanism upon which effective natural immunization to disease primarily depends. Some of the papers referred to in this report tend to support our acceptance of this theory.

We wish also to express appreciation to Dr. D. H. Arnott, whom we have found to be most useful, cooperative, and able in carrying out this work. His action in making available the Koch Treatment without delay has been of material benefit to our livestock men. In fact, at a meeting of the Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia recently held, the following resolution has been passed:—

“The Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia wishes to express its appreciation of the effort made by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture to determine the merit of the Koch Treatment in controlling and curing diseases of dairy cattle, and request that the Department of Agriculture continue to make available the Koch Treatment to owners of dairy cattle.”

The Koch Investigating Committee, which since its appointment on October 4th, 1944, has studied cases and received reports from dairy-herd owners, believes it has now completed its duty and is able to state that the question of the usefulness of Glyoxylide has been thoroughly studied. Our findings have been used by such men as W. Bruce Richardson, B.S.A., who in April, 1947, presented to the University of British Columbia, as his essay in partial fulfillment of the requirements for his degree in agriculture, “The Koch Treatment and the Use of It on Dairy Cattle in the Chilliwack Area.” This excellent and readable essay is now available to farmers and others who are interested in the study. In preparation of this essay Mr. Richardson had access to much of the material made available by Prof. S. N. Wood, D.V.M., Department of Animal Husbandry, College of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, a member of our committee, who in March, 1947, published an article in Butterfat, by the Fraser Valley Milk Producers’ Association at Vancouver. This article was entitled a “‘Preliminary Appraisal’ of Merits of the Koch ‘Glyoxylide’ Treatment for the Correction of Mastitis, Sterility and Other Functional Diseases of Dairy Cattle.” A further article published in the B. C. Farmer and Gardener in the June 1947, issue deals with “Acetonemia,” by G. F. R. Barton, D.V.M. These and other articles will appear in a symposium to be published in Volume 4, No. 1, January 1948, issue of the Common-tater, published in Vancouver.

These items that have appeared in the farm press of British Columbia within the past year all indicate the serious attention that has been given to the investigation of this new type of veterinary therapy in this Province, together with the profitable and increasing rewards gained through the use of the knowledge acquired.

Compliments of:

KOCH CATTLE SHOTS, INC.
Imlay City, Michigan
Michigan Distributor, Koch Treatment for Livestock

Memorandum to K.C. MacDonald

May 14th, 1945

MEMORANDUM: to the Honorable K.C. MacDonald

During the committee meeting on Saturday you were present for the presentation by different individuals representing the University, the Veterinary Association, the Department of Agriculture, and the herd owners of their opinions on the use of the Koch Treatment for mastitis, sterility, etc. This memorandum is intended to bring you up to date on the findings of the Koch Investigating Committee, which met at four o’clock on Saturday afternoon, May 12, 1945.

Present were: Dr. D. H. Arnott, Dr. S. N. Wood, Dr. L Sparrow, Dr. G. F. R. Barton, Dr. J. E. Bennett, Dr. W.R. Gunn, Mr. W. A. Gooder, Mr. J. J. Grauer, Mr. R. H. Irwin, and Mr. J. B. Munro, Dean F. M. Clement, Dr. F. W. B. Smith, Dr. Pinder and Oliver Wells were absent from the committee meeting through pressure of other duties. Dr. E. MacGinnia acted as secretary.

The findings of the committee can best be shown by stating that the mastitis and sterility problems were reported on as follows: Mastitis showed 71 cases that had been treated. These cases were divided into three categories.

Group “A” contained cows, which had developed mastitis from 1 to 12 days after freshening. These were acute cases.

Group “B” were chronic cases in which mastitis developed from 1 to 8 months after freshening with periodic recurrences many individuals in this group were animals that were a source of worry to veterinarians and herdsmen.

Group “C” contained only cows, which had dried up or were drying off before freshening.

It was shown that In the acute oases the Koch Remedy was most effective in re-establishing a normal condition of the udders, while in the other groups where the disease was of longer standing, the Treatment was less effective, indicating the advisability of the early use of the Koch Treatment.

The committee were agreed that in groups “A”‘ and “C” the Koch Treatment showed remarkable efficacy, especially on those individuals that were in herds where proper sanitation and herd management were maintained. In group “B” the Koch Treatment proved to be beneficial but further investigation is necessary in these cases.

In the sterility report covering 32 cows treated it was definitely shown that an average loss of time of each cow due to sterility was 5.8 months prior to the injection of the Koch Treatment. This loss of time was then reduced to 2.1 months after being injected with the Koch Treatment. The number of cows in the test that were pregnant at the end of that time showed overwhelming evidence of the effectiveness of the Treatment. It was felt by all members of the committee that with an extension of the period of observation, the percent of pregnant cows would be somewhat increased. For this reason the committee desired that the investigation be extended to permit further examination.

After hearing the evidence of the practicing veterinarians who conducted this investigation, a resolution moved by Dr. S. N. Wood and seconded by Dr. M. Sparrow and was unanimously passed as follows: “that the report of Doctors Bennett and Barton be accepted and the appreciation of the committee recorded.” Motion carried.

It was also moved by Dr. S. N. Wood and seconded by Mr. J. J. Grauer and passed unanimously, “that this committee advise the Honorable the Minister of Agriculture that, in its opinion, the investigation has shown that the use of the Koch Treatment has demonstrated marked results in the treatment of mastitis and sterility, and further, that the committee recommends to the Honorable the Minister of Agriculture that this investigation be continued.” Motion carried.

Other resolutions included one moved by Dr. S. N. Wood, seconded by Dr. M. Sparrow, “that this committee express its appreciation to the Honorable K. C. MacDonald for his interest in the livestock industry and his contribution to it by making this investigation possible; and to Dr. D. H. Arnott for his cooperation in the test with necessary free Koch Treatments.” Motion carried.

The committee meeting adjourned at 5:40 p.m. on Saturday, May 12 after having spent practically the whole day weighing the evidence laid before it by the veterinarians Dr. J. E. Bennett and Dr. G. F. R. Barton, who were thanked for their careful work.

JBM/ewf 

J. B. Munro
Deputy Minister

Michigan Dairymen Speak Out Against the U.S. Government

During the past few years we farmers have observed the action of a Remedy for two of the greatest curses to the dairy business, mastitis and infertility. We have watched this Remedy quickly and inexpensively restore diseased dairy cows to good health and good milk production. We have also observed a splendid increase in the reproductive capacity and the general health of the animals that have received this Treatment.

Similar observations to ours have been carried out on a large scale by the Department of Agriculture of the Government of British Columbia and the University of British Columbia, as well as various dairy associations and the veterinarian groups there. This has gone on for a period of five years with annual reports that have been most favorable. The final report announces the surpassing efficacy of this Treatment and shows that diseases in cattle can be wiped out in a major way, if not completely, by this Remedy.

Our Federal Government has resisted the introduction of this Treatment. The Federal Trade Commission has enjoined the inventor from advertising temporarily over the last seven years while they are looking around to find a cause for a permanent injunction.

The Food and Drug Department has falsely attacked him on trumped up charge about his label and have indicted him as a criminal, they have spent many millions of dollars to convict this benefactor, but they have failed. In the last months, they have been going about the country trying to trump up something upon which to start another trial. We protest these actions. We consider them highly criminal.

In the first place the Doctor’s label is a good label that any clean thinking mind would produce for the purpose. It simply identities the Remedy the Doctor sends to other doctors and the purpose for which it is to be used, giving the quantities, etc. The Government claims that this label virtually states that the Remedies will cure everything, every disease on earth, in every instance. As a matter of fact, the labels do not claim that it will cure anything or that it will help anything and physicians know that there is no such thing as a remedy that will cure everything. This interpretation of a label is far more criminal than raising a check because it deprives us of the use of this Remedy to keep our dairy businesses going in good order.

We suspect very strongly that some drug interests have representation in the Federal Government against the common interest of the farmer, and the health of our country. We, therefore, request two things: namely that the persecution of the inventor of this Remedy shall stop immediately and that the injunction against his telling the world what his Remedies are good for shall be withdrawn, and that this be done immediately!

We, therefore, solicit your immediate action in our behalf.

Good Progress In Bang's Disease

By D. H. ARNOTT, M.D.
LONDON, ONTARIO

FIRST PRINTING.
Copyrighted by WM. F. KOCH LABORATORIES OF CANADA

Author’s Foreword:

Life is promoted, sustained and reproduced by the use of food. For good health the supply must be adequate in amount and in variety. For the best normal results, it is necessary that the food be well digested, and also that the potential energy contained therein be transferred into living energy throughout the body at a vigorous rate, burning the food properly in each individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this purpose.

This living chemical reaction is spoken of by medical science as “internal respiration,” and it must take place continuously, because Nature has provided the body with no reservoir wherein oxygen may be stored, to he drawn upon at will or in time of need.

It is upon the degree approaching perfection with which food is thus turned into living energy consistently, that conditions requisite for good health are best maintained; that disease is best resisted; that life is best reproduced.

It is Dr. Koch’s belief that a normal supply of these essential carbon compounds often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the reagents which he discovered, and which he distributes under the name of Glyoxylide. *(1)

Where the Remedy has been applied successfully, therefore, there is re-established a vigorous resistance to disease and a strong natural recovery process may be instituted through which a notable degree of good health may be recovered.

In the study of the therapeutic usefulness of the Koch Treatment, the selection of Bang’s Disease offers several desirable conditions:

(1) Bang’s Disease is transmitted to man.

(2) In Canada, experts hold that, “No drug has proved of any value in the control of Bang’s Disease up to the present time. Many substances have been tried by mouth, by injection under the skin and into the circulation, without any evidence of benefit. The difficulty is that any substance capable of destroying Brucella abortus in the body would also prove fatal to the animal.” *(2).

(3) The Koch Treatment is a potent remedy, safe to use, quick in action, and of the utmost immediate economic importance.

(4) Several landmarks identify the disease and disclose the usefulness of the Koch Treatment:

   (A) A blood test reveals with some accuracy the presence of the disease.

   (B) Bang’s Disease is responsible for serious loss of reproduction needed to maintain the number of animals required in the herd. Effects of the disease cause:

      1. Dropping of dead and premature calves.

      2. Infertility:

         (a) Chronic inflammation of the womb with retained placenta.

         (b) Chronic vaginal discharge.

         (c) Cystic ovaries.

         (d) Impotence in the young male.

*(1) The Concepts of the Koch Treatments have been published: (available on this web site)

   (A) KOCH, WM. F. AND MAISIN, J.; C. R. de la Soc. de Biol., Vol. 120, p. 106, 1935.

   (B) MAISIN, J. AND ROBERTS; C. R. de la Soc. de Biol., Vol. 123, p. 156-159.

   (C) MAISIN, J. AND POURBAIX, Y. AND JONARD F.; C. R. de la Soc. de Biol., Vol. 123, p. 1270-1272, 1936.

   (D) The Chemistry of Natural Immunity by William Frederick Koch, Ph.D., M.D.; Revised Edition, 1939; The Christopher Publishing House, Boston, U. S. A.

*(2) INFECTIOUS BOVINE ABORTION (Bang’s Disease) by Ronald G. Watkin D.V.Sc., Ontario Research Foundation, Toronto, January, 1934. Page 28.

This report is the result of four years research financed by the Department of Agriculture of the Government of Ontario.

GOOD PROGRESS AGAINST BANG’S DISEASE

By D. H. ARNOTT, M.D.

An animal infected with a microbe known as Brucella abortus is said to be suffering from Bang’s Disease or Contagious Abortion.

The presence of the disease may be noticed in the herd first by the dropping of one or more premature calves.

Some retain the after-birth, but those that have cleaned completely may have a persistent brown vaginal discharge, which contains the Brucella abortus germ.

In addition to the dropping of premature calves, the mating schedule for planned additions to the herd can be seriously deranged:

Some need to be bred repeatedly, and others remain infertile over such a considerable length of time they must be removed from the herd.

A laboratory blood test will reveal the presence of the disease with fair accuracy, but will not identify those that have aborted or disclose those that shall abort in the future.

One cannot read the directions issued by experts, through the use of which some control over the spread of Bang’s Disease may be hoped for in a herd where the trouble has appeared, without being disturbed by the ease and speed with which the disease may go through a herd; from the moment of exposure until the infection has become sufficiently masterful to be recognized by blood tests, may be as short an interval as ten days. (1).

C. D. McGilvray and J. S. Glover made routine blood tests of 141,887 cattle and found 5% were suspicious for Bang’s Disease; 14% were positive and 81% were negative. (2).

The most important information disclosed by the McGilvray and Glover Report is not the number of diseased animals discovered, but the large percentage revealed which must have met the infection under ordinary herd conditions, yet were able to resist it successfully.

There is no laboratory procedure by which the individual animal can be identified which has been exposed to the infection and has remained immune to the disease.

That such natural immunity exists is beyond question, since 1% to 2% of those identified by blood test as having the disease may make a natural recovery, the blood test changing from positive to negative. (3)

While this is rare in adult animals, it happens generally in calves, under easily controlled conditions, “in some cases the blood of the calves gives a higher reaction than that of the dams, but regardless of this they become negative, with a very few exceptions, when removed from contact with infection. In those cases that do not become negative it may be because they have been moved too late or further infection has been unknowingly introduced.” (4)

“A negative animal is one whose serum shows no reaction when mixed with the test fluid. Such animals may be considered as free from infection with Brucella abortus.” (5)

This natural tendency to recover from the disease, which is general with calves though relatively rare in adult animals, can be promoted and hastened in cows by the use of the Koch Treatment. An important percentage of recoveries resulted.

PREVENTING PREMATURE CALVING:

Used on the herds of several breeders who solicited assistance, the dropping of premature calves was so substantially reduced that all the owners were surprised and pleased.

POSITIVE BLOOD TESTS CHANGED TO NEGATIVE:

Circumstances recently indicated the need for a blood test in one herd of nine. Eight of these were found positive to Bang’s Disease. The entire herd was given the Koch Treatment. Sixty days later the blood test was repeated, and three of the eight, which had been positive, were then negative; and the one that had been negative had remained negative. The blood was taken by a registered veterinarian and tested in the laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College.

MASTERING INFERTILITY:

One of the serious problems caused by Bang’s Disease is that of infertility of heifers and young cows. The Koch Treatment has been given for this condition under my personal direction and fertility has been restored frequently following the use of but one injection.

EXAMPLES OF RESTORED FERTILITY:

(Following one injection of the Koch Treatment)

(1) Cow had produced one calf, following which her periods appeared regularly and she was mated consistently, but during 25 months had proved barren.

(2) Cow following the birth of the last of her three calves fifteen months previously, has been mated repeatedly without success.

(3) Cow dropped premature calf in July 1943. She was bred in September. Early in December left front quarter became swollen and produced a scant flow of thick milk. Treated for mastitis, all signs of the trouble disappeared in a week. The cow also came in heat again, disclosing the fact she had not been in calf. Mated during second period she appears to be three months pregnant at time of writing.

(4) Herfer three years old had been bred repeatedly for one year but without success.

These with other reports of restored fertility arc in the breeding records kept by men who own registered herds.

IN CONCLUSION

(A) Effective natural immunity to Bang’s Disease, which is general among calves, often can be promoted in adult animals through the use of the Koch Treatment.

(B) Where required, the Koch Treatment may restore normal balance of the reproductive functioning, disclosing infertility and restoring fertility.

REFERENCES:

(1) INFECTIOUS BOVINE ABORTION (Bang’s Disease) by Ronald G. Watkin, D.V.Sc., Ontario Research Foundation, Toronto, January, 1934; Page 24:

(2) Ontario Department of Agriculture, REPORT of the ONTARIO VETERINARY COLLEGE, 1942. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario Sessional Paper No. 29, 1944; Page 16.

(3) Progress Report on Plans for the Control of Bang’s Disease by C. D. McGilvray and J. S. Glover.

(4) INFECTIOUS BOVINE ABORTION (Bang’s Disease) Page 26.

(5) INFECTIOUS BOVINE ABORTION (Bang’s Disease) Page 23.

The History Of Glyoxylide Use In Dairy Experiment

In presenting data on the experimental use of Glyoxylide in the treatment of bovine diseases, I shall give a brief history of the work from the beginning.

Dr. D. H. Arnott, H. D., a general practioner in the City of London, Ontario, Canada, for almost fifty years, has long been active in the advancement of the Koch Therapy. I doubt whether there is another individual who has contributed as much to advancement of the Therapy, except Dr. Koch, himself. Dr. Arnott’s work brought the first official recognition of Koch Therapy in North America. It was in 1940 Dr. Arnott used Glyoxylide in treating a patient suffering from Undulant Fever. His patient responded so quickly and. completely that he was prompted to investigate the possibilities for Glyoxylide in the treatment of Bang’s disease, or contagions abortion, in dairy animals.

For several years Dr. Arnott and T. S. Campbell, both veterinarians, carried on an investigation in the Province of Ontario, near London, using Glyoxylide in the treatment of mastitis, acute and chronic and Bang’s disease. The results of their work are recorded in five pamphlets printed by Dr. Arnott. They are:

1. “The Successful Treatment of Acute Infectious Mastitis in Cows.”

2. “Clinical Notes Which Illustrate the Successful Treatment of Acute Mastitis in Cows,” presented before the Annual Meeting of the Middlesex Holstien Association in London, January 20, 1943.

3. “The Koch Treatment Used for the Control of Mastitis in Cows; Prevention of and Recovery from Acute and Chronic Mastitis Promoted through the use of this Method.”

4. “The Cure and Prevention of Mastitis and Contagious Abortion. New Light Derived from Prompt Successful Results Obtained Through the Use of The Koch Treatment.”

5. “Good Progress Against Bang’s Disease.”

Ontario Officials of the Department of Agriculture were silent to appeals made by Dairymen for an investigation of the Koch Therapy.

Dairymen in the Province of British Columbia were receiving Treatments during 1943 and early 1944 through Dr. Arnott’s agent, Mr. W. A. Gooder of Vancouver. Reports of successful treatment of mastitis and other seriously destructive diseases of dairy animals in British Columbia were being placed before the then Minister of Agriculture, with the request that the Department investigate the merits of this new method of Treatment.

Dr. K. C. Mc Donald, The Minister, realizing the great need, of the dairymen, wrote Dr. Arnott for information, and the doctor complied by mailing all available literature, together with a full statement, revealing opposition to this Therapy and the morbid attitude of Ontario Officials.

Dr. Mc Donald, after careful study of the literature, decided that an entirely new approach to the study and treatment of bovine diseases had been disclosed and invited Dr. Arnott to confer with him in British Columbia.

Two meetings were scheduled for members of his staff, together with Representatives of University of British Columbia, The Breeds Associations, The Veterinary Association, dairymen and. others. During the second meeting it was agreed that an investigation of the merits of Glyoxylide be conducted, starting with mastitis and sterility and it was understood that all pathological conditions revealed during the examination, or treatment of animals selected for investigation, would be recorded and progress accurately noted.

The Department of Agriculture reported highly successful results were obtained in the treatment of both mastitis and sterility and also made note of fifteen pathological conditions that responded equally well to one administration of Glyoxylide. Full information is available from reprints of the Annual Report for 1944 — 45 — 46 — 47 and 49, which can be obtained here at the Convention, through the courtesy of Koch Cattle Shots, Inc.

It was in 1946 I learned that Glyoxylide had been used successfully in the treatment of mastitis. The information was contained in a letter received from the late Dr. Willard H. Dow, then President of Dow Chemical Company of Midland, Michigan. Dr. Dow stated, “This type of treatment has been used with outstanding success in the case of cattle and other animals. The record of mastitis cures is of the order of better than 90 percent.” Located, as we are, in the very heart of the best dairy in section in Michigan, and because the prosperity of local business and professional men are largely dependent upon farm income, directly or indirectly, we are always seeking means by which we can help to increase farm income.

A brief investigation revealed the serious losses farmers were experiencing from mastitis, sterility and other diseases. Dr. Koch was contacted and. agreed to furnish Treatments, gratis, to farmers in the area for investigational purposes and a score or more farmers made use of Glyoxylide during the next few months. The results were good, and in some instances, startlingly so.

When more farmers became interested, the Imlay City Chamber of Commerce and Imlay City Rotary Club called a public meeting of all interested parties and. Dr. D. H. Arnott was asked to address the meeting, which was held in the Imlay City High School Gymnasium, March 9, 1948. About 300 farmers, business and professional men were present. The meeting was lively from the start. Dr. Arnott’s address was presented in such an interesting way that the audience was reluctant to permit the doctor to conclude his address, even after more than one hour and thirty minutes had passed. An additional hour was consumed in answering questions put to him from the floor.

At this meeting the dairymen appointed a committee composed of five farmers and two businessmen, with myself as chairman (L. B. Thatcher), which was later called the KOCH THERAPY EVALUATION COMMITTEE.

The Committee agreed that Michigan State College officials in East Lansing, should be approached and their cooperation solicited. This was done with the Committee meeting the Deputy Commissioner of Agriculture, Dr. Clark, the state veterinarian, members of the Agricultural Committee of the House of Representatives and several members of the Senate. These representatives were in agreement that our cause was worthy of their support and agreed to give us financial help through legislative appropriation, if such was desired. Dr. Clark said the matter was one that should be presented to the Research Director at Michigan State College and he proceeded to make an appointment for our Committee for that very afternoon.

The Committee met with Mr. Gardner, Research Director, and Dr. Claude S. Bryan, Dean of the College of Veterinarian Medicine; Bryan being the one who would conduct all research, if any was forth-coming. Dr. Bryan evidenced great interest and asked for all of the British Columbian literature currently in our possession. We assumed he had no knowledge of the British Columbia reports, but afterward found the college library had copies of all the literature and so there was little doubt that Dr. Bryan was well versed on the subject long before our meeting.

A second meeting was scheduled for our Committee and Dr. Arnott to meet with Dr. Bryan and members of his staff, for the purpose of setting up a demonstration or evaluation program at Michigan State College. The officials were very cordial but the tenor of the meeting was such that we readily realized they were diplomatically avoiding any program, which would truthfully and properly evaluate Glyoxylide’ s efficiency. Dr. Bryan stated that for him it was almost impossible to diagnose mastitis and he had ‘no expert’ who could do the simple test for Acetonemia, which is a condition for which Glyoxylide is a specific Treatment, and a condition that responds quickly and completely to the Koch Treatment, and for which there is no other specific treatment.

The Committee left East Lansing somewhat bewildered by the official action, but jointly decided to initiate research and evaluations, if sufficient support could be found. The Imlay City Chamber of Commerce offered financial support, as did Dr. Willard H. Dow. Dr. Arnott offered his help and Dr. Koch agreed to provide the needed Glyoxylide and to also reimburse the veterinarians for their services.

Farmers in the area offered herds and the work was started in April, 1948 with the first animals being treated May 8th, and the second May 16, 1948. Before animals were treated, complete physical examination was made, also blood samples were drawn and milk specimen taken from each quarter. Laboratory tests were made of both blood and milk samples. Animals were checked monthly for a period of thirteen months.

The Committee followed a plan similar to the one used in British Columbia. We hoped to demonstrate Glyoxylide’s beneficial effects in the treatment of mastitis, especially fibrosis, since this condition causes the premature slaughter of a very important percentage of our best dairy animals annually. It is generally agreed, by veterinary authorities, that fibrosis does not respond to know udder infusion treatments and therefore recommend that animals thus affected be slaughtered. The British Columbia Department of Agriculture had reported in l944—45, “a consistent result was a definite softening of the udder after Treatment. The disappearance of fibrous tissue was noticed in a considerable number of cases! In no case was any other treatment used.”

Our Committee therefore decided upon this one demonstration as being of utmost importance to dairymen. The Committee also undertook to demonstrate Glyoxylide’s value in the treatment of sterility and Acetonemia (Ketosis) and to record and report all other pathological conditions observed during the demonstration, which responded to Glyoxylide.

In addition to the two original herds selected for Treatment, an additional seven hundred dairy animals were treated during the demonstration from May 1948 through June 1949. Also, over two thousand dairy animals have been treated since the Christian Medical Research League began in December 1948; research is currently being conducted in sixteen states in addition to Michigan. Several State Colleges have indicated an interest in Glyoxylide and some are following our work closely.

Our research and evaluations to date have provided a wealth of sound information. We have been able to confirm and corroborate the outstanding clinical results reported by: Dr. Arnott, officials of the Department of Agriculture of British Columbia, along with published reports by W. Bruce Richardson, Dr. S. N. Wood B.S.A., D.V.M., Professor and Animal Pathologist at the University of British Columbia, Dr. G. P. R. Barton, B.V.Sc., of Chilliwack and others. We are pleased to report that our work in the treatment of fibrosis revealed 85.5% recovery in the Koning herd of forty-five Jerseys of which twenty-nine cows were affected and of the twenty-nine, fourteen of the most severe cases were treated, leaving the others as controls. Within twenty-eight weeks, 85.5% of the treated animals were clear of fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis was classified as slight, moderate, marked and severe, or 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The method used to provide easy comparison between treated and control animals, was the number of teats in each class multiplied by the percentage in each classification and then the totals were added. For example: ten teats in the 25% class equals 250% and two teats in the 50% class equals 100%, two teats in the 75% class equals 150%, making a grand total of 500%.

Koning Herd

Fibrosis, 85.5% Recovery,

Average number of Treatments 1.35

 
1948
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1949
 
May
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Treated
1250
800
325
550
400
374
nr
300
200
Control
725
975
750
725
800
625
nr
950
925
 
-525
175
425
175
400
250
nr
-650
-725

Milk production in this herd increased, subsequent to the Koch Treatment, from 11 to 14 cans per day or from 880 lbs. to 1120 lbs. This was the highest production in history of the herd had been 11 cans.

In the Max Graybiel herd of eighteen Holstein animals, the fibrosis recovery rate was 64.5% within twenty-eight weeks. The average number of Treatments used was 1.8 per animal.

The experience gained from this demonstration indicates that more liberal use of Glyoxylide can bring about a higher recovery percentage and that recovery will take place more quickly.

In contrast to the Koning herd, with an average of 1.35 Treatments used per animal and a recovery percentage of 85.5%, The Graybiel herd recovery percentage was 64.5%, and the number of Treatments averaged 1.8% per animal. It must be remembered that the Koning herd was considered an average herd with a history of very little serious trouble from mastitis and other diseases, while the Graybiel herd has a history of several years of mastitis in the herd, with veterinary fees averaging about $450.00 annually and with no permanent relief until Glyoxylide was used in May 1948. Since then veterinary bills have averaged less than $50.00 annually, with little or no disease problem. Injuries are now Mr. Graybiel’s main reason for veterinary service. Several of the Gabriel cows were to have been sold because of fibrosis. With one exception, all animals are still in the herd and producing satisfactorily. Needless to say, Mr. Gabriel is very well satisfied with the results obtained from Glyoxylide.

Records obtained in the Treatment of more than 1500 dairy animals affected with chronic or acute mastitis, show that Glyoxylide is over 80% effective.

Acute mastitis responds quickly to one injection of Glyoxylide. The pathological trend is completely reversed in many instances within a few hours, with complete recovery anywhere from a few hours to a few days. When response is not immediate a second injection within three days has proven beneficial.

Chronic mastitis…Good results follow use of one Treatment, but recovery requires a longer period (usually one to four weeks), except where the condition has been chronic for a period of one or more years, or where the underlying damage (scar tissue) is extensive. In this instance recovery may not be complete in less than sixty to ninety days. In such cases, we recommend retreating in seven or twenty-one day intervals until three Treatments have been given. We found this procedure very highly successful. Recovery very definitely can be promoted and sustained by this method. Where tissue changes are necessary, it is doubtful whether much can be gained by repeating the Treatment in less than weekly intervals.

We found Glyoxylide to be a specific treatment for Acetonemia. The number of animals treated for this condition is less than 200, with recovery approximately 94%. Most animals respond within 24 to 48 hours to one injection… others were given two… and some were given three Treatments. On several occasions when an animal was down with a commanding degree of the affection we administered Glyoxylide and glucose. I think it hastened recovery somewhat, however, more work will be needed to determine its worth.

Two hundred or more Bang’s positive cows have been treated with Glyoxylide within the past sixteen months, however, we lack complete reports on some of the herds. The following will give an indication of what may be expected:

In treating Bang’s positive cows in order to correct sterility and. prevent further abortion one Treatment was used. This method proved successful in Michigan in over 100 Bang’s positive animals treated. All cows conceived, there were no abortions… all calves were healthy… as were the cows. Milk production was also very satisfactory.

Where it was considered important to change the blood test from positive to negative, three successive Treatments, at weekly intervals, were recommended and used. Our records are complete on several herds, however the numbers are limited. The picture we now have is very encouraging. In one herd, six cows were treated and five responded, all blood tests becoming negative. Two are still negative and three have been retreated… no test since. In another herd two were treated and both are negative. We have had several instances with only one positive animal in the herd. Three Treatments were administered and in each instance the blood tests were negative. We hope to run tests on several hundred Bang’s positive animals within the next year, which will permit more comprehensive conclusions to be drawn and reported upon.

We have used several of the well known udder infusion treatments as well as other forms of medication in conjunction with Glyoxylide in the treatment of mastitis and other pathological conditions, and although this work is very limited, there has been no evidence that any of the drugs used have inhibited Glyoxylide’s beneficial action. On the contrary, there is evidence that the combined use of such drugs should be investigated thoroughly. We are currently making plans to continue this investigation.

In addition to mastitis, sterility, Acetonemia and Bang’s disease, Glyoxylide was applied successfully to many pathological conditions… such as, septic conditions associated with retained placenta, difficult labor with possible infection, milk fever relapses, Pneumonia, shipping fever, hoof rot, ring worm, edema of the udder…to mention only a few… Scovers, pink eye, cancer, and other systemic conditions.

We consider a cow cured of mastitis by Glyoxylide when the udder became soft and pliable, the flaky, stringy milk became normal and the causative organism was eliminated from the milk samples as shown by laboratory tests or when the blotter test showed clear. Streptococcus was found present in about ninety percent of the animals before being treated.

We consider the use of the Glyoxylide Treatment in a cow suffering from Acetonemia as being used successfully, when she soon regains her strength and her appetite ‘when her milk is again saleable, when her production of saleable milk equals or exceeds in amount that which had been obtained previously, and when the chemical test for Acetone in the urine has proven to be negative.’

In summary…We have drawn the following conclusions from our evaluation and research program:

1. We have been able to confirm and collaborate results reported by Dr. D. H. Arnott and others based on the thorough research done in Canada.

2. We have been able to confirm British Columbia reports of Glyoxylide’s efficacy in treatment of fibrosis and have established records indicating the Treatment to be successful up to 85.5%.

3. Our results of recovery in sterility are above the 70% reported in British Columbia.

4. Complete clinical control of Bang’s disease or Contagious Abortion resulted in all animals being treated in Michigan. In many cases where only one Treatment was administered, the blood test changed from positive to negative. A much higher percentage of negative blood changes occurred in animals that were given three consecutive injections at weekly intervals.

5. Glyoxylide was found a specific treatment for Acetonemia (Ketosis) with a very high percent recovery.

6. We have established records of the fact that most acute conditions are quickly controlled by one injection of Glyoxylide and that chronic conditions such as mastitis responds well to frequent injections. We have used weekly injections and find we can maintain and promote recovery by this method. In no case have we found any inhibitory action resulting from repeating the Treatment.

Where tissue changes are necessary in the recovery process, we doubt whether anything can be gained by repeating the dose in less than seven days. In some acute conditions it appears that Treatment may be repeated in less than seven days with satisfactory results.

These conclusions were drawn from the observations and correlation of the results obtained in treating over three thousand dairy animals with Glyoxylide during the past two years. We do not wish anyone to infer that disappointment has not followed the use of Glyoxylide in the treatment of individual animals, or that all herds responded equally well, but on the whole there has been general satisfaction obtained by those who have used the method of Treatment to cure, control and prevent common seriously destructive diseases of dairy animals.

Twenty-eight projects are now being carried on in 18 states. It will take many more years of extensive research to determine the possibilities for Glyoxylide in the treatment of bovine diseases. Our work to date has provided a pattern for the future. We look to the future with great hope for sound progress.

Koch Therapy In British Columbia

Reprint from the Official 1949 Report of the Department of Agriculture

One of the reasons for including a note on the results of the Koch Therapy Investigation that was conducted by this Department during the past five years is the publication in The Cancer Bulletin, published by the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Cancer Society, in Volume 3, No. 1, this year of an article transcribed from the Journal of American Medical Association.

Another reason for mentioning the Koch Treatment is that on September 20th, 1949, the Fraser Valley Koch Therapy Association was incorporated, and it is felt that members of that organization may find it advantageous to refresh their minds of what has been done by the Department of Agriculture and by the men who cooperated with our Committee.

This Department makes it perfectly clear that the Koch Treatment was used in veterinary cases and that we are satisfied with the results of that Treatment that has been used in connection with mastitis and other diseases of dairy cattle.

It was June 1943, when the distribution of Glyoxylide for the treatment of dairy cows affected with mastitis and other diseases began in British Columbia. By the spring of 1944, sufficient reliable information of the highly successful results of its use in the Chilliwack district had reached the Department to warrant making the suggestion to Dr. MacDonald that the use of this Treatment be investigated. The Minister was favourable to the idea of getting the fullest possible information and requested that Dr. D. H. Arnott be communicated with. Dr. Arnott supplied copies of the books published by Dr. Koch and the five pamphlets, which he himself had written on the use of the Koch Treatment on farm animals.

After careful study of the literature the Minister decided that an entirely new approach to the study and treatment of disease had been disclosed. He considered it advisable to have a personal interview with Dr. Arnott, who in response to an invitation came to British Columbia in September 1944, for this purpose. Arrangements were made by the Minister of Agriculture for representatives of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, and the Department of Agriculture to meet in the Courthouse, Vancouver, on September 25th, when Dr. Arnott visited British Columbia and outlined to those present the Koch Method of treating dairy cattle for acute infectious mastitis and related diseases of cattle. Most of the veterinarians present appeared to be of cattle in which 5 c.c. of Glyoxylide solution is administered subcutaneously by hypodermic injection. However, since none who had seen it used, the Minister stated that he wished to have a further meeting of veterinarians and the owners of dairy cattle, afternoon, in the Vancouver Courthouse.

At this second meeting, attended by the officials, the Minister of Agriculture, and Dr. Arnott, there were many dairymen present who made astounding claims for the Koch Treatment. In practically all cases the dairymen claimed that their cows responded almost immediately to the single injection of Glyoxylide. These cattle owners were emphatic in their request that no action be taken which would prevent their obtaining Koch Treatments when required. In addition, to the dairymen present, a number of letters had been received from cattle owners prior to the meeting. The Minister stated that it was his desire to form an opinion based upon accurate investigations and he named a Committee to undertake this investigation. On the Committee the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, the Provincial Department of Agriculture, and representatives of the several breed associations were included, together with Dr. D. H. Arnott, who represents the Dr. Wm. F. Koch Laboratories.

This Committee held its first meeting on the evening of October 4th and outlined suggestions to be laid before the Minister with respect to undertaking the work. Acting upon these suggestions, the Minister appointed J. E. Bennett, B.V.Sc., Secretary of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, as Provincial Inspector to work with G. F. R. Barton, B.V.Sc., of Chilliwack, who was named to represent Dr. Arnott.

The work undertaken was limited to an investigation as to the merits or demerits of Koch’s Glyoxylide in the treatment of mastitis and infertility. Seventy-one cows affected with mastitis and twenty-nine, which were infertile, were given the Glyoxylide. The Minister directed that record was to be made of all clinical results of importance which might be observed during the progress of the demonstration. Two milk specimens were taken from each quarter of the affected animals by the veterinarians at the time the cows were injected; these were sent to separate laboratories, where bacteriological examinations were made and noted. Samples were taken a week later, examined, and compared bacteriologically with the first. A second physical examination was made at this time and compared with the first, and any improvement or otherwise was accurately recorded.

The reduction in the number of bacteria between the first test and the second one, made seven days later, was so remarkable that the setting-up of the Committee was justified in that brief interval.

The seventy-one cows treated for mastitis presented 263 quarters affected with the disease out of a total of 284 quarters, showing the stern test to which Koch’s Glyoxylide was submitted during the investigation. No saleable milk was being obtained from these 263 quarters affected with mastitis when the first injections of Glyoxylide were administered; ten months later it was revealed that production of market milk had been restored to 256 quarters.

Reckoning as one item the many different types of bacteria regarded as inciting mastitis in the seventy-one cows affected with this disease, the Committee made note of fourteen pathological states, which gave place to normal conditions during the work. Here they are:

(1) Remarkable reduction of bacterial count in milk produced in many cows in one week.

(2) A consistent result was a definite softening of the udder.

(3) The disappearance of fibroid tissue was noted in a considerable number of cases. No member of the Committee ever had seen one instance by the use of any other treatment.

(4) Beneficial effect on digestion.

(5) Beneficial effect on the skin.

(6) Beneficial effect on the coat.

(7) One quarter that was affected for a long period and badly atrophied (shrunken) made a complete recovery.

(8) Infertile cow exhibiting continuous estrum had normal time-cycle reappeared over considerable and were mated successfully restored and mated successfully, to same sire.

(9) Four infertile cows where no estrum had periods of time had normal estrtim restored to same sire.

(10) Infertility with cysts of the ovaries. Normal conditions restored. Successfully mated to same sire.

(11) Infertility with ovarian cysts and vaginitis. Normal conditions restored. Successfully mated to same sire.

(12) Infertility with retained corpus luteum and vaginitis. Normal conditions restored. Successfully mated to same sire.

(13) Infertility with fibrous ovaries. Normal conditions restored. Successfully mated to same sire.

(14) Dr. W. R. Gunn Live Stock Commissioner, reported horses suffering from fistulous withers, and with blood test positive to the injection of Bruccila abortus, had cleared up after the injection of Glyoxylide. This report was received and accepted by the Committee.

The consistent and highly meritorious results obtained from the use of Koch Glyoxylide by the Committee warranted the Department in extending its interest in the Therapy during 1946 and 1947 by treating Johne’s disease.

Could any clinical problem offer more convincing excuse for being classed as incurable than that presented by Johne’s disease? It is induced by infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis, which produces enteritis characterized by severe chronic diarrhea, which directly and persistently depletes the vitality of the stricken animal. Early diagnosis followed by the slaughter of all affected animals has been the method for control of the disease ordered by veterinary authorities.

During the season of 1946 a fair sized herd on Vancouver Island was losing young heifers at the time of first calving. The trouble was diagnosed as Johne’s disease, and a concentration of infection was found in this isolated herd that had sustained many losses. This trouble was brought to the attention of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, who, at the request of the owner, inoculated all animals in the herd and one week later re-inoculated the four animals which showed clinical symptoms of Johne’s disease, using the Koch Treatment: The suffering of the animals with the scouring was stopped immediately, and the herd has continued to make steady improvement ever since.

When first treated with Glyoxylide, out of a herd of between twenty-five to thirty milking cows, there were four clinical cases, with one in the very advanced stages of the disease. Checks made periodically since that date have shown that all clinical cases recovered. The general over all production of the herd has shown, by cow-testing records, to be up to a very high standard. The cattle are all in very satisfactory condition and, from the standpoint of disease for which they were treated, not a single additional case of Johne’s disease has appeared, and the owner is highly satisfied. Since reporting the above late in 1947, Dr. Gunn has discovered that two additional cows, which have been added to the herd, are showing clinical symptoms of Johne’s disease. At the owner’s request he has administered the necessary injections of Glyoxylide. These cases also are being closely followed up because it is evident that contamination remains on the premises.

No isolation! No slaughter! Complete control obtained by the administration of Koch’s Glyoxylide!

At the meeting of the Committee held on May 12th, 1945, it was clearly established that mastitis which had been incited by the Streptococcus Hemolyticus not only was cured by the administration of Glyoxylide, but that there was a strong tendency for this greatly feared germ to disappear from the milk of the cow in a month after it had been treated with Glyoxylide. This point should be of interest to the public, and also to those responsible for the health of the public.

The hostile reception with which the proposal to discuss the merits of the Koch Therapy met from most of the veterinarians present at the meeting held on September 25th, 1944, gave way, after six months work of the Committee, to the following approval of the action of the Minister expressed on May 12th, 1945, as recorded in the minutes of that meeting

“Dr. F. W. B. Smith, speaking for the Veterinary Association, stated ‘that they were happy that Dr. MacDonald was instrumental in bringing this investigation about and he assured him that they appreciated his efforts.'”

At the regular meeting of the British Columbia Veterinary Association held January 15th, 1946, the following resolution was passed:

“This Association is of the opinion that the official results of the Koch Treatment (Glyoxylide) in veterinary practice appear reasonable grounds to warrant continuing its use.”

The last public appearance of Honourable K. C. MacDonald as Minister of Agriculture was at the meeting of the Committee held in Vancouver, September 28th, 1945, at which time it was gratifying to the Committee to be able to return a favourable report based upon the Minister’s request for a studied candid opinion of this rather new type of veterinary therapy.

The Minister explained that the purpose of carrying out this investigation was to seek some means of benefiting the dairy herds of British Columbia, which were affected by mastitis though all precautions were taken that, were known of at the time. The Minister thought the evidence as presented by the veterinarians indicated that nothing could be added, and he wished to assure the members of the Committee that his sole interest was the welfare of the dairy population of the Province. He had reached the years when he realized that there was no finality to any question when the matter of possible treatment arose and that the least that could be done was to investigate the Koch Treatment.

This Committee meeting included members of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, and the Provincial Department of Agriculture, also the presidents of all dairy breed associations. The personnel of the Committee are as follows: — Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture.

Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of Agriculture.

Dr. D. H. Arnott, representing the Koch Treatment, London, Out.

Dr. F. W. B. Smith, president, British Columbia Veterinary Association, Vancouver; British Columbia Division, Health of Animals, Federal Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.

Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.

Dr. Jos. E. Bennett, secretary, British Columbia Veterinary Association, and Veterinary Inspector, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.

Dr. S. N. Wood, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Dr. M. Sparrow, vice—president, British Columbia Veterinary Association, Steveston.

Dr. J. G. Jervis, veterinary surgeon.

Dr. G. F. R. Barton, veterinary surgeon.

R. H. Irwin, representing the dairymen.

W. A. Gooder, representing the Koch Treatment in British Columbia.

In 1947 the Department felt that it had completed a very satisfactory investigation of the Koch Treatment of dairy animals and reported that in each succeeding year since 1944 the British Columbia Department of Agriculture reported on the progress of investigations of the Koch Treatment of farm animals. These investigations were carried on with a number of different types of diseases, and in every instance we have been able to confirm and corroborate the outstanding clinical results reported by Dr. Arnott in his publications touching on the successful treatment of these various pathological states.

The usefulness of the Koch Therapeutic Reagents rests upon fundamental anti undisputed physiological and bio-chemical reactions, which we explained in our Annual Report of 1945, thus:—

“Life is promoted, sustained, and reproduced by the use of food. For good health the supply must be adequate in amount and variety. For the best normal results it is necessary that the food be well digested, and also that the potential energy contained therein be transferred into living energy throughout the body at a vigorous rate, burning the food properly in each individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this purpose. This living chemical reaction is spoken of by medical science as ‘internal respiration,’ and it must take place continuously because Nature has provided the body with no reservoir wherein oxygen may be stored to be drawn upon at will or in time of need. It is upon the degree approaching perfection with which food is thus turned into living energy consistently that conditions requisite for good health are best maintained, that disease is best resisted, that life is best reproduced.

“It is Dr. Koch’s belief that certain carbon compounds perform an important intermediary step in the living chemistry by which food is turned into life itself; and should the supply of these compounds fall below that requisite for the best conditions, life may continue, but vigorous good health may be lost.

“It is Dr. Koch’s belief that a normal supply of these essential carbon compounds often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the Reagents which he discovered.

“The Department of Agriculture, after making its investigation of different diseases, is inclined to agree with this claim. We have reached our favourable conclusions on the Koch Treatment through a carefully planned method of obtaining practical first-hand information in actual fieldwork among dairy herd owners. Our observations have established the fact that various pathological states sometimes were present in one animal, all of which cleared up promptly following the administration of the Koch Therapy. It seems only right that we should accept the explanation furnished by Dr. Koch that these and other serious diseases stem from the breakdown of the oxidative mechanism upon which effective natural immunization to disease primarily depends.”

We have expressed our appreciation to Dr. D. H. Arnott, whom we have found to be most useful, cooperative, and able in carrying out this work. His action in making available the Koch Treatment without delay has been of material benefit to our livestock men. In fact, at a meeting of the Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia held in 1947 the following resolution has been passed:—

“The Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia wishes to express its appreciation of the effort made by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture to determine the merit of the Koch Treatment in controlling and curing diseases of dairy cattle, and request that the Department of Agriculture continue to make available the Koch Treatment to owners of dairy cattle.”

The recent incorporation of a non-profit company under the name “Fraser Valley Koch Therapy Association” set up by owners of fine dairy cattle experienced in the use of Glyoxylide forecast the future safety of this form of Therapy which has been endorsed in British Columbia by the Department of Agriculture and the other organized agencies which cooperated in carrying out the Koch Therapy Investigation set up in 1944 by Honourable K. C. MacDonald (deceased), Minister of Agriculture.

The fact should have been noted by the British Columbia Cancer Bulletin that in all of our Committee reports regarding the Koch Treatment, we have dealt with the use of this material from a veterinary standpoint only. All references to the use of the Koch Treatment for cancer have been carefully avoided, although many instances of the value of this Treatment have come within the purvue of those engaged in veterinary matters.

If in any future issues of their Bulletins the Cancer Society wishes to quote from our report, it is hoped that they will give a correct impression of the value of the Koch Treatment and refrain from any inaccurate claims with which they are not competent to deal.

Colleague Publications